What Would Happen if the Earth Were Actually Flat?

by |January 24, 2018
flat earth map

If Earth were flat, you’d know it, because a lot of things would work differently. Photo: Pexels

By Doug Main

Welcome to the new year, 2018. The Earth has yet again made a revolution about the sun. But not so fast. If you subscribe to the idea of a flat Earth, then you’d believe that no such thing happened, because the sun rotates in a circle around the sky.

Humans have known for thousands of years that the planet is round, yet the belief in a flat Earth refuses to die. Members of the Flat Earth Society and several celebrities, including Atlanta rapper B.o.B and NBA player Kyrie Irving, claim to hold such beliefs. Let’s examine, then, how the well-known principles of physics and science would work (or not) on a flat Earth.

Gravity Fails

First of all, a pancaked planet might not have any gravity. It’s unclear how gravity would work, or be created, in such a world, says James Davis, a geophysicist at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. That’s a pretty big deal, since gravity explains a wide range of Earthly and cosmic observations. The same measurable force that causes an apple to fall from a tree also causes the moon to orbit the Earth and all the planets to orbit the sun.

People who believe in a flat Earth assume that gravity would pull straight down, but there’s no evidence to suggest it would work that way. What we know about gravity suggests it would pull toward the center of the disk. That means it would only pull straight down at one point on the center of the disk. As you got increasingly far from the center, gravity would tug more and more horizontally. This would have some strange impacts, like sucking all the water toward the center of the world, and making trees and plants grow diagonally, since they develop in the opposite direction of gravity’s pull.

Solar Problems

Then there’s the sun. In the scientifically supported model of the solar system, the Earth revolves around the sun because the latter is much more massive and has more gravity. However, the Earth doesn’t fall into the sun because it is traveling in an orbit. In other words, the sun’s gravity isn’t acting alone. The planet is also traveling in a direction perpendicular to the star’s gravitational tug; if it were possible to switch off that gravity, the Earth would shoot away in a straight line and hightail it out of the solar system. Instead, the linear momentum and the sun’s gravity combine, resulting in a circular orbit around the sun.

The flat Earth model places our planet at the center of the universe, but doesn’t suggest that the sun orbits the Earth. Rather, the sun circles over the top side of the world like a carousel, broadcasting light and warmth downward like a desk lamp. Without the linear, perpendicular momentum that helps generate an orbit, it’s unclear what force would keep the sun and moon hovering above the Earth, Davis says, instead of crashing into it.

Likewise, in a flat world, satellites likely wouldn’t be possible. How would they orbit a plane? “There are a number of satellite missions that society depends on that just wouldn’t work,” Davis says. For this reason, he says, “I cannot think of how GPS would work on a flat Earth.”

If the sun and moon just loop around one side of a flat Earth, there could presumably be a procession of days and nights. But it wouldn’t explain seasons, eclipses and many other phenomena. The sun would also presumably have to be smaller than Earth so as to not burn up or bump into our planet or the moon. However, we know the sun to be more than 100 times the diameter of the Earth.

Removing Heaven and Earth

Deep below ground, the solid core of the Earth generates the planet’s magnetic field. But in a flat planet, that would have to be replaced by something else. Perhaps a flat sheet of liquid metal. That, however, wouldn’t rotate in a way that creates a magnetic field. Without a magnetic field, charged particles from the sun would fry the planet. They could strip away the atmosphere, as they did after Mars lost its magnetic field, and the air and oceans would escape into space.

Tectonic plate movement and seismicity depend on a round Earth, because only on a sphere do all the plates fit together in a sensible way, Davis says. Movements of plates on one side of the Earth effect movements on the other. The areas of the Earth that create crust, like the mid-Atlantic ridge, are counterbalanced by places that consume crust, like subduction zones. On a flat Earth, none of this could be adequately explained. There’d also have to be an explanation for what happens to plates at the edge of the world. One could imagine they might fall off, but that would presumably jeopardize the proposed wall that prevents people from falling off the disk-shaped world.

map of flat earth

How some Flat Earthers map out the planet. The Arctic is at the center, and an “ice wall” around the edges supposedly prevents people from falling off. Image: Wiki Commons

Perhaps one of the most glaring oddities is that the proposed map of the flat Earth is totally different. It places the Arctic at the center while Antarctica forms an “ice wall” around the edges. In such a world, travel would look very different. Flying from Australia to certain parts of Antarctica would, for example, take forever—you’d have to travel over the Arctic and both Americas to get there. In addition, certain real-world feats, such as traveling across Antarctica (which has been done many times), would be impossible.

Falling Flat

Contrary to popular belief, it’s a misconception that many societies of serious, educated people ever actually believed in the flat Earth theory. “With extraordinary few exceptions, no educated person in the history of Western Civilization from the third century B.C. onward believed that the Earth was flat,” historian Jeffrey Burton Russell noted in 1997. “A round Earth appears at least as early as the sixth century B.C. with Pythagoras, who was followed by Aristotle, Euclid, and Aristarchus, among others in observing that the earth was a sphere.”

As the scientist and writer Stephen Jay Gould once wrote, the idea that many people—including the Spaniards and Christopher Columbus—believed the Earth to be flat was largely concocted by 19th century writers such as Washington Irving, Jean Letronne and others. Letronne was “an academic of strong anti-religious prejudices… who cleverly drew upon both to misrepresent the church fathers and their medieval successors as believing in a flat earth,” Russell noted.

In any case, while it’s fun to imagine counterfactual scenarios, science proceeds by coming up with theories to explain observations. When it comes to these theories, the simpler, the better, Davis says. The flat Earth idea, however, clearly begins with the idea that the planet is planar, and then attempts to twist other observations to its benefit. You can find odd explanations for individual phenomena under this framework, says Davis, but “it falls apart pretty quickly.”

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29 thoughts on “What Would Happen if the Earth Were Actually Flat?

  1. Lynn Kempen says:

    It is painfully obvious you have not investigated the Flat Earth theory.
    Proverbs 18:13 He that answereth a matter before he heareth it, it is folly and shame unto him.

    Please explain why we no longer have the technology to send a man through the Van Allen belt. Then give me one example of the alleged curve, which, per your model’s dimensions, drops 8″ per every mile squared (8″ in 1st mile, 32″ at 2nd mile, 72″ at 3 miles.) This is should be readily documentable on any large body of water. Yet, there is not one physical example found on Earth.

    1 Thess 5:21 Prove all things; hold fast that which is good.

  2. Sarah Fecht says:

    Hi Lynn,

    We don’t have the technology to send humans through the Van Allen belt because the U.S. stopped making rockets that are meant for human spaceflight, period. NASA and SpaceX are currently working on fixing that with the SLS and Falcon Heavy.

    Further reading: https://www.popsci.com/10-ways-you-can-prove-earth-is-round

  3. Jordan says:

    If a theory begins with ‘It’s a conspiracy’ you can probably guess there isn’t going to be much in the way of scientific data. According to the Flat Earth community astronauts who have seen the planet from space are actors and all the photos of our blue marble are fake.
    Thank you for posting this article. Great information!

  4. Wil says:

    A simple experiment that any true fat Earther can try. set a laser at 3 meters above the ground, drive in a strait line in any direction along a flat plane in any direction you like for 13 Km. place a segmented graph that is 3 meters tall and see if that laser still shines at the 3 meter mark.

  5. Xheesie says:

    Ummm.. Lynn…? We have live feed video of Earth from the International Space Station, which is NO HOAX: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P5_GlAOCHyE There are many photographs of Earth taken from space…. the photos show beyond any shadow of a doubt that our home planet is R-O-U-N-D, as in “spherical,” actually: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mve7hRaoH8U. And NONE of these facts is an affront or “assault” on God, who made it all and He made it ROUND. Goodness. Why not join the 21st Century? You’re seriously behind the times.

  6. Beau S. says:

    I’m not disproving the geocentric or the heliocentric theory, I am merely pointing out several flaws in your understanding of either. First NASA does not and cannot fly above “low Earth” orbit. This is by their own admission. They cannot pass through the Van Allen belts, also by their own admission. Every “blue marble” picture of Earth IS a composite, they are Photoshoped images, once again, by their own admission. Why? Because they CANNOT fly above “low Earth” orbit. Bill Bye said very plainly, “The Earth is a ” closed system “, we cannot leave the Earth. There is nowhere for us to go.”
    Second. In the flat Earth or geocentric model, there is no gravity, at least not in the sense scientists explain gravity. It is simplified to mere weight and buoyancy. “An object has weight, therefore, it falls.” There is no unseen force to cause this.
    Third. Water is always is a flat plain It is always level. Water cannot bend. If the round ball Earth has such vast oceans those oceans MUST be bending or curving to form said ball and water will not do that. People who tell you that a live feed from a balloon at an altitude of nearly 100000 feet is NOT high enough to see any detectable curvature, are the same ones who tell you that the curvature can be seen by watching ships on the ocean disappear over the horizon. Any common telephoto lense brings the vanished ship right back into view again.
    Seek the truth with an open mind and no preconceived notions. Put every claim and every theory to the test. Believe no one. Judge and test yourself. Not just one side or the other but all sides and all theories.

  7. le says:

    Dear Lynn we do have the tech to send human through the van allen belts and it will be proven again when space tourism happens in the next decade, I personally dont think they had the capability to go through belts in the 60’s., but that another story… also google lake pontchartrain transmission lines, USA, that is one example and fact of the alleged curve, ok so you say that they have been done on photoshop, then youtube it, plenty of people video recording it on there

  8. Lewis says:

    I’m pretty sure if Earth was flat people would fly planes over the edge to prove it, or show the edge with pictures.

  9. Guy says:

    responding to Lewis’ comment…………i dont know anybody with a plane with that kind of range, maybe the U.S. government……i heat they are very forthcoming

    responding to Lewis’comment………..I dont know anybody with a plane with that kind of range. The U.S. government perhaps, maybe they shoulda checked that out on their trip back from the moon………

  10. Mike Rapp says:

    “Every “blue marble” picture of Earth IS a composite, they are Photoshoped images, once again, by their own admission.”

    This is a wholly false statement. All photos of earth are not composites. At no point has NASA ever said all photos from space are composites.

    Furthermore, to create a composite you need a series of actual photographs. Therefore composites are, by definition, actual photos. NASA uses composites because the only other way of capturing a full view of earth would require an extreme wide angle lens, which would distort the photo.

    You can use Photoshop to un-warp a wide angle photo but doing so removes granular digital data that effects sharpness. Therefore it is “better” to take a series of photos and use Photoshop to stitch them together digitally. This is done every day by photo editors like me.

    Finally, I am an expert level graphic artist, include Photoshop. Virtually every photo we see in the advertising world has been edited in Photoshop. That fact doesn’t mean the photo isn’t “real” or “accurate.” Sunlight and lenses artifically color and distort images by default, and designers use Photoshop and Lightroom to shift them back to what we commonly consider to be accurate.

    What’s amazing to me is that the vast majority of photos from space are not edited other than shifting color balance to adjust for sunlight radiation. They are in fact the most real photos of nature we have as a society.

  11. Mike Rapp says:

    “Bill Bye said very plainly, “The Earth is a ” closed system “, we cannot leave the Earth. There is nowhere for us to go.”

    Bill Bye, whomever he is, is an idiot. Just because he said this doesn’t make it true.

    “Second. In the flat Earth or geocentric model, there is no gravity, at least not in the sense scientists explain gravity.0

    You have a completely unproven “model” which is not based in trial and error. Calling this concept a model makes it sound credible, which it is not by any reasonable standard of trial and error, ie the scietific method.

    “Water is always is a flat plain It is always level. Water cannot bend.”

    Water is made of molecules that move organIt relative to gravity. Liquid water isn’t flat. It does in fact bend.

    “Any common telephoto lense brings the vanished ship right back into view again.”

    False. Utterly false. sorry I am a photographer. You can’t just say something like this. Total BS

  12. ddd says:

    the earth is flat, okay?

  13. Anonymous says:

    if earth was flat, were is the edge of it. Explain that.

  14. Robert Magee says:

    Just ask people who navigate the planet by sea or air. They have to know precise distances from point to point. In the flat earth map, the distances are hugely stretched as move out from the center.
    Here are some actual distances that could only fit on a spherical globe:
    9675 km Distance from Johannesburg to Oslo, Norway
    11,034 km Distance from Johannesburg to Sydney
    2,155 km Distance from Auckland to Sydney
    2384 km Distance from Portland, OR to Kansas City

  15. RBarr says:

    As someone above has already stated, water does bend – unless Niagara Falls, Angel Falls, Bridal Veil Falls, and other notable waterfalls and rapids are (1) Photoshopped or (2) optical elusions. Water bends when you pour it from a glass or use a hose. It bends at every joint and fixture in your plumbing. In fact, it is impossible in nature to see liquid water that’s NOT bending. It takes the shape of whatever contains it. Even the (smooth) water in lakes bends from the force of the wind lightly ruffling it. (I would also include ocean surf and the tides, but those are probably woven into the conspiracy theory about Earth, so no.)

    So just because the “earth is flat” doesn’t mean its features all have to be pancake shaped. Heck, PEOPLE are mostly water, and I personally don’t think there’s a living, breathing Flat Stanley anywhere among us. Not now, not ever.

    No, but seriouly.

    Another thing – the Space Race began in 1957. As it unfolded, its events were well documented on film by real people, both pros and amateurs, with video- and still-image cameras. Not to mention these people were eye witnesses. Lay people at the Cape Canaveral launch viewing site and astronauts who were recruited for the various missions took pictures both from Earth and in orbit around Earth with Instamatic cameras and higher resolution NASA equipment.

    Film, not digital files. Negatives, videos, and prints whose properties are not conducive to manipulation. Countless photos and videos representing a very spherical Earth, captured by Not-Flat Stanleys from the Cape, lunar spacecraft, and orbiting capsules. Certainly not hidden away til someone could invent digital cameras, scanners and editing programs.

    With film it took skill just to make a double exposure worth viewing, much less manipulate complex elements in photographs. The vintage ones were/are authentic visual records of those orbital flights, moon missions, landings, and explorations. The same goes for verbal and written first-hand accounts.

    It was another 30 years, actually, before Photoshop was developed in 1987. Sold to Adobe in ’88 and released in 1990. Corel Paint and other digital image editing software were soon in business, too. But no viable programs were developed before Photoshop. So post-production digital editing (in other words, Photoshop) had no part to play in the familiar images from space that we have known since the 1960s. The iconic pictures of our blue globe, preserved in our archives and museums; displayed in books; shown in film; stored on our mobile phones, our tablets, and computers–they predate Photoshop by decades.

    You may claim that photos and videos of our globe are Photoshopped composites, and in the majority of cases I couldn’t dispute it because they’re digital. But those from the time before photo editing–those eerily calm images that made us gasp when they were published–just as there’s nothing to convince you the Flat Earth Theory is bogus, there’s nothing to convince me that it isn’t.

    I’m not easily persuaded, especially when a theory has no supporting evidence, either correlated or causal. Y’all are going to have to do better than that to make me believe me the earth is flat.

  16. Chuck says:

    What your missing is research.
    Your not being fair to yourself or your family if you can’t openly except the fact that the flat earth people have a legit argument.
    If you research the bible, the book of enock, mechanical gyroscopes, 8 inches curve per mile squared and use your common sense without influence from what you were told when you were 6 years old.

    Nobody understands gravity but we try to study it. Why can’t it just be based on density of an object. Heavy objects are more dense.
    A bowling ball is more dense/heavier than an air fill balloon but they both will sit on a counter.
    Fill the balloon with helium and it rises because it is lighter than air it has less density, not because of gravity.
    You can’t have it both ways.
    Ask any airplane pilots you know if they have to compinsate for curviture. They dont! Why is that? Wow, maybe you should research this and just maybe if your not a close minded person you may find the earth is flat.
    Water does not curve.
    The water in florida is as flat as the water in hong kong china.
    Place a matchstick on a basketball and open your mind to something other than a Hollywood movie.
    Flat earthers are your friends and neighbors and only ask you to prove the earth isnt flat but please don’t let some so called pictures from space be the only evidence you have to contribute.
    Just humor yourself for a second and ask yourself, what if the Apollo 11 pics are fake?
    What would you do? Do you rely on a 500 year old calculation that the earth is a sphere.
    Just because you read it in a book of science doesn’t make it so.
    The human eye can only see so far, only to the vanishing point which some say is 6 or 7 miles.
    On water or maybe the salt flats you go out untill nobody can see you but, then they pick up some optics and poof there you are, why? What happened to the curviture of 8 inches per mile squared? You realize that at about 4 miles the eart curves more that 4 feet so how can you see a complete car at 10 on a flat road or a boat on the water.
    If you’ve read this far you are starting to realize there may be something to this.
    Don’t be haters just experiment it for yourself and prove to yourself that the earth is flat or round, you do the 6 mile test, then you will be awakening.
    Piece be with us all.

  17. LC says:

    In a “flat earth model”, can someone explain why the celestial sky rotates clock-wise in the Southern Hemisphere and then it rotates counter-clockwise in the Northern hemisphere? This seems to only fit with the earth being a globe.

  18. Ron Cab says:


    Movement of celestial bodies as you mentioned is clockwise in the southern hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere can be logically explainable by a globe earth. And I agree.

    But it can also be explained with a flat earth with a dome atmosphere that serves as a giant dome lens through which we see the stars. You might be surprised that it would give similar visuals. (And also how we see the sun the way we see it moves across the sky and how it partially lightens a flat earth). Kindly check it out if you are interested to really know the arguments of both sides. God bless.

  19. Donald says:

    Flat earthers always tends to say all photos are photoshopped, mind you, unless you’re still a child you’d realise that space photos we’re here even long before Photoshop was existed, plus even before NASA was even existed, the earth was already proven to be round. Don’t believe everything you read, do experiments yourselves

  20. Udge says:

    No pole to pole circumnavigation……we have west to east but no north/ south. There is one entry in the Guinness book of records given to an English guy for north south circumnavigation BUT he didn’t cross Antarctica and sail back to his starting point! He started from the North Pole and travelled to the tip of Antarctica………then turned back! That’s not completing a full circle……maybe it’s not possible…….cos earth is flat…..check it out and be honest with yourselves.

  21. Scott says:

    Why isANTARCTICA completely off limits to private explorers? What are they hiding?
    If you walk around your neighborhood does that make it a ball? The plane earth surrounded by a 50,000 mile circular ice wall makes a hell of a lot more sense than the globe earth theory, and let’s be clear, this 500 year old theory has NEVER been proven beyond a reasonable doubt, once it is, the flat earth theory will go away, but not until then.
    No one wants to believe they’ve been lied to their entire lives, to admit it makes you look foolish, but to ignore it makes you look insane. As Admiral bird said, there is vast amounts of unexplored land beyond the south “pole” and some of it is tropical in nature. Land rich in minerals and gold and uranium and oil exists beyond the pole, you don’t just continue south beyond the pole and suddenly travel north back up towards the North Pole , which is what happens when circumnavigating from north to south. They have been lying to us, they are hoarding whatever is beyond Antarctica for themselves, or there is something there that forbids public disclosure. Either way, I have found the flat earth theory to be more believable with the scientific evidence that can be proven. Wake up people, don’t let them enslave your minds as well as your bodies!

  22. Kacie says:

    I do see how both views could be true. There are valid arguments on both sides. I have come to the conclusion that we really can’t KNOW anything. We think we know what we are taught, but then we find evidence that causes us to question it. And let’s face it, ‘un-learning’ isn’t fun. And maybe, earth is neither a sphere, nor a plane. Maybe it is something else entirely, like a holographic illusion! Our perceptions are not always trustworthy! Our brains can lie to us and they often do! For instance, I went on a cruise recently, and upon disembarking, I still felt the ship moving. The land beneath my feet did not feel still. This continued for 2-3 weeks! My brain was telling me I was still at sea, when I was certainly not. So now I am at the place where I don’t trust much anymore. Not what is written in books, not what I was taught, and not even my own perceptions. It’s actually quite scary and I feel insecure not knowing what to believe. It makes me realize how important ‘beliefs’ really are to us. And what makes us so curious? I still ask questions even though I realize they may never be answered. Here’s one:… if the earth is flat, why doesn’t the sun ‘shrink’ into the distance if it’s just hovering overhead in a circle and gets further away? The size of the sun does not seem to change on the horizon or overhead. Here’s another:… I have the original LIFE magazine after man landed on the moon in July ’69. The centerfold pages instead of being a photograph, are a painting. The only picture is a small thumbnail of man’s first step on the moon. All the photos I’ve seen of the lunar landing do look rather fake… like a movie set. And the earth view from the moon is always very small in size, sometimes different sizes. Astronauts vary about what they say… some say earth is small, some say huge, some say they can’t see the stars, others say they see so many stars. The ISS Live Feed keeps them in daylight more than 45 mins… and it doesn’t always agree with being where my phone app says they are. Once the Live Feed had them in daylight, but it was over my house at 9:30 pm in total darkness. So there is some strangeness going on, I don’t know, maybe it can be explained somehow. I hate to think people in power have been lying to us. NASA’s logo is rather odd as well. The red part does look like a forked tongue. One last question… what are all the meteor showers we have in spring and fall? If we are in an enclosed dome, where do they come from and what are they? OK, enough for now. I hope one day we’re all on the same page. Jesus said “If you abide in my Word, you are my disciples indeed, and you will know the Truth, and the Truth will set you free.” He also said He was the Truth. (And I guess it takes faith to believe He said that, right?) 😀 Yeah…. I don’t know if we need to ‘wake up’, I think most of us are already ‘awake.’ We just have to keep on questioning, and not be afraid to let go of old belief systems. In my case, I don’t think knowledge is power. For me, knowledge is security. I want to have these answers because I want to feel safe. Blessings, all!

  23. Philip says:

    It is interesting that status quo ‘science’ mocks FEers. The Op also is hateful and unprofessional. I am a 61 y/o physician required to give photographic proof to CMS … with GPS, time-stamps, and sequential photos. CMS does not trust its doctors and their fraud.

    Globists, OTOH, have no such photographic validation.

    For 55+ years of ample time, space agencies have never independently validated any photos whatsoever. Yet, I witness plenty of fraudulent footage by the all space agencies.

    FE models appear to me experimentally proven (land, sea, or sky) . And, until we demo footage or experiments that actually prove otherwise, it behooves me to believe earth is flat and stationary.

  24. All you flat earthers try getting the south pole. Really these flat earthers too much sci-fi [Edited]. And Stranger you say you have members all AROUND the globe. Sound familiar.

  25. Jerry says:

    Do any of you flat earthers realize that if the earth was flat you would be able to see a lit candle from 20 miles away, your field of vision would be almost unlimited,

  26. There is a tendency for people to reject that reality, that science of the day, on comfortable myths. Things that make them feel at home things that make them much happier that they know what’s going on.

  27. Eduardo says:

    Flat earth?
    Viewing range in a powerful telescope would be astronomical yet cant see the things on antartica? For example stand on burj khalifa and look through with a telescope. If you cant see antartica, then the earths curved.
    Seasons. Imagine the people that belong on the southern hemisphere still receiving the same quality of heat and light in a winter and summer season.
    A star is a ball of fire, yet spit spotlight like light and heat? You flat earth could say the science of today cant be understood by the generality and still a theory..but what you flat earthers are saying was MAGIC. Sun is smaller than earth but is hot? Unless its colored bluish white, i cant believe it to produce stroking heat with that orange color…
    If earth was not round, then why is there magnetic field. Aurora is the product of light EM waves, bending on the polar regions as the suns light shine… You cant also see the changing of color of the sky due to rayleigh scattering if its not curved.
    The eclipse..how on earth would you explain that? The moon earth and sun suddenly rearrange for a matter of time as if its normal then back to flat again???
    If you say there is no gravity, how did the universe even begun? How did it rearange itself. If your saying its density, then to where does that lead it to? I say the gravity sets that direction..
    How could you explain the meteors and comets if its not due to planetary motion and gravitational force.
    How do you explain the atomsphere? Is it flat? The weather? The current?
    How can someone travel straight for hours get a curved displacement by following the model of a flat earth? And for shits sake, the east to west is a straight path only facing forward, not inching to left or right.
    Then this is a more simple question, how did the earth originate systematically for a flat earther?

  28. Christopher says:

    Re: Udge
    April 10, 2018 at 9:53 pm
    “No pole to pole circumnavigation” – This is untrue.

    29 AUGUST 1982
    The first surface circumnavigation via both the geographical Poles was achieved by Sir Ranulph Fiennes and Charles Burton (both UK) of the British Trans-Globe Expedition. They travelled south from Greenwich, London, UK on 2 September 1979, crossed the South Pole on 15 December 1980, the North Pole on 10 April 1982, and returned to Greenwich on 29 August 1982 after a 56,000 km (35,000 mile) journey.
    Source: http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/first-circumnavigation-via-both-poles-surface

  29. Mike Shellenberger says:

    FLAT EARTH = EVERYONE DIES sun burns us up there would be no magnetic field to protect us [edited]

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